Dr. Gregory’s scholarship is driven by the need to understand how some teachers and schools disrupt racial and gender disparities in school discipline. We know many educators are able to build trusting relationships and successfully engage with students who have histories of suspension. We also know some schools are able to close the racial discipline gap. We need empirical examinations of best practices and programs to help support educators in transforming their approaches to school discipline.
In 2010, I synthesized empirical findings on the varying contributors to the racial discipline gap. I concluded that African American students, in particular, are over-selected and over-sanctioned compared to students from other racial and ethnic groups. Evidence suggests that they are harshly disciplined and punished, which reflects complex underlying processes that drive the disparities.
Gregory, A., Skiba, R. J. & Noguera, P. A. (2010). The achievement gap and the discipline gap: Two sides of the same coin? Educational Researcher, 39, 59-68. *
Since then, I have been investigating ways to narrow racial disparities in school discipline. I published this review which described the Framework for Increasing Equity in School Discipline:
Gregory, A., Skiba, R. J., & Mediratta, K., (2017). Eliminating disparities in school discipline: A framework for intervention. Special issue on equity in school. Review of Research in Education, 47, 253–278.
Gregory, A.& Roberts, G. (2017). Teacher beliefs and the over-representation of Black students in classroom discipline. Theory into Practice, 56, 187-194.
Gregory, A. & Fergus E., (2017). Social-Emotional Learning and Equity in School Discipline. In S. M. Jones, E. Doolittle, & S. McLanahan (Eds.) The Future of Children, 27, special issue on Social-Emotional Learning, 117-136.
Blake, J. J., Gregory, A., James, M., & Webb Hasen, G. (2016). Early warning signs: Identifying opportunities to disrupt racial inequities in school discipline through data-based decision making. Special Issue: Encouraging Racial and Social Justice throughout the Pre-K to Graduate School Pipeline in the School Psychology Forum: Research in Practice, v. 10, 289–306.
Rubie-Davies, C. M., Weinstein, R. S. Huang, F. L., Gregory, A., Cowan. P., & Cowan, C. (2014). Successive teacher expectation effects across the early school years. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 181-191.
Lee, T., Cornell, D., Gregory, A. & Fan, X. (2011). High suspension schools and dropout rates for Black and White students. Education and Treatment of Children, 34, 167–192.
Gregory, A. & Thompson, A. (2010). African American high school students and variability in behavior across classrooms. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 386–402.
Gregory, A. & Ripski, M. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review, 37, 337-353.
Gregory, A. & Weinstein, S. R. (2008). The discipline gap and African Americans: Defiance or cooperation in the high school classroom. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 455-475.
Gregory, A. & Mosely, M., (2004). The Discipline gap: Teachers’ views on the overrepresentation of African American students in the discipline system. Equity and Excellence in Education, 37, 18-30.
Gregory, A., Nygreen, K., & Moran, D. (2006). The discipline gap and the normalization of failure. In P. Noguera & J. Wing (Eds.), Unfinished business: Closing the racial achievement gap in our schools (pp. 121-150). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gregory, A. (2011, March). African American adolescents and their varying relationships with teachers across the school day. Paper symposium conducted at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Child Development. Montreal, Canada.