Headshot of Anne Gregory

Dr. Gregory’s scholarship is driven by the need to understand how some teachers and schools disrupt racial and gender disparities in school discipline. We know many educators are able to build trusting relationships and successfully engage with students who have histories of suspension. We also know some schools are able to close the racial discipline gap. We need empirical examinations of best practices and programs to help support educators in transforming their approaches to school discipline.

Racial Discipline Gap in Schools

In 2010, I synthesized empirical findings on the varying contributors to the racial discipline gap. I concluded that African American students, in particular, are over-selected and over-sanctioned compared to students from other racial and ethnic groups. Evidence suggests that they are harshly disciplined and punished, which reflects complex underlying processes that drive the disparities.

Gregory, A., Skiba, R. J. & Noguera, P. A. (2010). The achievement gap and the discipline gap: Two sides of the same coin? Educational Researcher, 39, 59-68. *

Since then, I have been investigating ways to narrow racial disparities in school discipline. I published this review which described the Framework for Increasing Equity in School Discipline:

Gregory, A., Skiba, R. J., & Mediratta, K., (2017). Eliminating disparities in school discipline: A framework for intervention. Special issue on equity in school. Review of Research in Education, 47, 253–278.

Related Publications:

Gregory, A.& Roberts, G. (2017). Teacher beliefs and the over-representation of Black students in classroom discipline. Theory into Practice, 56, 187-194.

Gregory, A. & Fergus E., (2017). Social-Emotional Learning and Equity in School Discipline. In S. M. Jones, E. Doolittle, & S. McLanahan (Eds.) The Future of Children, 27, special issue on Social-Emotional Learning, 117-136.

Blake, J. J., Gregory, A., James, M., & Webb Hasen, G. (2016). Early warning signs: Identifying opportunities to disrupt racial inequities in school discipline through data-based decision making. Special Issue: Encouraging Racial and Social Justice throughout the Pre-K to Graduate School Pipeline in the School Psychology Forum: Research in Practice, v. 10, 289–306.

Rubie-Davies, C. M., Weinstein, R. S. Huang, F. L., Gregory, A., Cowan. P., & Cowan, C. (2014). Successive teacher expectation effects across the early school years. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 181-191.

Lee, T., Cornell, D., Gregory, A. & Fan, X. (2011). High suspension schools and dropout rates for Black and White students. Education and Treatment of Children, 34, 167–192.

Gregory, A. & Thompson, A. (2010). African American high school students and variability in behavior across classrooms. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 386–402.

Gregory, A. & Ripski, M. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review, 37, 337-353.

Gregory, A. & Weinstein, S. R. (2008). The discipline gap and African Americans: Defiance or cooperation in the high school classroom. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 455-475.

Gregory, A. & Mosely, M., (2004). The Discipline gap: Teachers’ views on the overrepresentation of African American students in the discipline system. Equity and Excellence in Education, 37, 18-30.

Gregory, A., Nygreen, K., & Moran, D. (2006). The discipline gap and the normalization of failure. In P. Noguera & J. Wing (Eds.), Unfinished business: Closing the racial achievement gap in our schools (pp. 121-150). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Related Presentation:

Gregory, A. (2011, March). African American adolescents and their varying relationships with teachers across the school day. Paper symposium conducted at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Child Development. Montreal, Canada.

Equity and Restorative Practices

Restorative Practices (RP) and Restorative Justice (RJ) aims to change how educators build community, prevent disciplinary problems, and reduce the racial discipline gap. I am evaluating best practices for high quality implementation. I am also implementing an experimental trial of RP in 18 schools.

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Authoritative School Discipline: A framework for positive school discipline

I  extended Baumrind’s “authoritative” and “authoritarian” parenting styles framework to the school setting and named it, “Authoritative Discipline Theory” (ADT). ADT offers a novel way for the field to conceptualize the balance of structure and support in schools. In a statewide study in Virginia, my colleagues and I found that schools with high structure and support had lower bullying and teacher victimization. These schools also had lower suspension rates and smaller racial discipline gaps. Schools trying to change their school climate can be informed by studies below.

Related Publications:

Related Presentation:

  • Gregory, A. (chair), Cornell, D., & Fan, X. (2011, August). The relationship of school structure and support to suspension rates for Black and White high school students. In A. Gregory (Chair), African American youth and disproportionality in school discipline. Paper symposium conducted at the annual American Psychological Association convention. Washington DC.

Teacher professional development: Rigorous coaching to narrow achievement and discipline gaps

A promising model of teacher professional development is a sustained coaching model in which veteran teachers pair with current teachers, view videotaped footage of their instruction throughout the school year, and use an empirically-validated observational tool to identify aspects of effective (or ineffective) instruction within the video footage. With colleagues from the University of Virginia (Drs. Allen, Pianta, and Hafen), I have helped implement and evaluate two randomized control trials of this coaching model (My Teacher Partner–Secondary, MTP-S). We found that the MTP-S program results in higher achievement and engagement for students. In MTP-S classrooms, the racial discipline gap was eliminated.

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Research Lab Students

Lab Alumni Research Assistants

Kathleen Clawson
Kathleen completed her Bachelors Degree at Covenant College and her master's degree at the University of Pennsylvania. Her service interests include promoting social awareness and coping skills to reduce children's distress and behavioral disruptions within schools. Her research interests are in the area of reducing the gender gap in discipline. She worked on Anne Gregory's "Restorative Practices" research collecting data and contributed to reports and papers to summarize the findings in 2012-2013.

Alycia Davis
Alycia Davis completed her Bachelors Degree at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research addresses preventive interventions for youth at risk for antisocial behaviors, especially in regards to underserved populations. She worked on Anne Gregory's Restorative Practices research as a project manager in 2013-2014.

Kate Garcia
While attending Rutgers Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Kate conducted research on Anne Gregory's CLASS coding project. Her dissertation was titled “Teacher Responses to Racist Accusations and Their Relationship with Black Students”. Kate is finished up her last year at GSAPP in 2014. She did her internship at Theodore Schor Middle School in Piscataway, New Jersey. There she worked as a school psychologist/behaviorist consulting with teachers, providing group counseling, conducting Harassment, Intimidation, and Bullying investigations, along with other non-traditional responsibilities.

Clarissa Green
Clarissa completed her bachelor’s degree in psychology at California State University, San Marcos and her master's degree in developmental psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research interests are in the areas of trauma, depression and anxiety in youth. She worked on Anne Gregory's "Restorative Practices" research as a graduate research assistant in 2013-2014.

Jennifer R. Jones
While attending Rutgers Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Dr. Jones conducted research on Anne Gregory's My Teaching Partner, Secondary Project. Dr. Gregory chaired her dissertation titled, "The Relationship Between Early High School Discipline and Academic Outcomes." Dr. Jones completed her APA accredited internship at Lincoln Hills School, (Irma, Wisconsin) which was a Type-1 Juvenile Correctional Facility. Dr. Jones currently works at the Beth Israel-St. Luke's Roosevelt HEARTS Program: Healing Emotions and Achieving Resilience to Traumatic Stress in New York. She spends her time engaging in a mix of clinical, research, and administrative activities. She coordinates staff trainings in evidence-based interventions, and provides those interventions to children and adolescents ages 5-18 years old in several settings including schools, family preventive programs, juvenile correction facilities, courts and an outpatient clinic.

Josh Korth
Josh completed his Bachelors Degree at New York University. His service interests include Autism Spectrum Disorders and youth questioning their sexual orientation. His research interests are in the areas of school discipline for African-American adolescents, social emotional learning, and implementation supports in school interventions. He worked on Anne Gregory's "Restorative Practices" research, as a research assistant in 2013-2014.

Kevin Mundt
While attending Rutgers Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Kevin conducted research on Anne Gregory's My Teaching Partner research project. Kevin Mundt's dissertation was titled "The Influence of Cultural Match and Sense of Community on Latino School-Based Parent Engagement.” Kevin completed his final year in the Spring of 2014.

Ramona Ross
Ramona completed her Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology and Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. Her research interests include challenges to the school settings in urban areas, as well as trauma, anxiety and depression in minority youths. Ramona worked on Anne Gregory’s “Restorative Practices” research as a research assistant in 2013-2014.

Danielle Zurawiecki
While attending Rutgers Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Danielle conducted research on Anne Gregory's My Teaching Partner, Secondary Project. She also conducted observational coding of Restorative Practices circles. Finally, she assisted in qualitative research with teacher transcripts to better understand how teachers discussed their student relationships, parent contact, and classroom instruction. Dr. Gregory chaired her dissertation titled, "The Impact of Student Threats and Assaults on Teacher Attrition". Danielle completed her internship year in June 2013 at the Somerville Public School District where she worked across all grades levels within a diverse community. She is currently a school psychologist at Somerville High School. Danielle earned her doctoral degree in October 2013.

Rutgers GSAPP Dissertations Chaired by Dr. Anne Gregory

  • Jennifer Jones, (December, 2011). The relationship between early high school discipline and academic outcomes.
  • Danielle Zurawiecki (June, 2013). The impact of student threats and assaults on teacher attrition.
  • Kate Garcia, (July, 2013). Teacher responses to racist accusations and their relationship with black students.
  • Kevin Mundt, (November, 2013). The influence of cultural fit and sense of community on latino family involvement
  • Shoshana Freidman (2013), Teacher emotional intelligence and the quality of their interactions with students.
  • Ashley Dombrowski (2014). Middle school student perceptions of mathematics motivation and teacher support in a higher income setting.
  • Alycia Davis (2014). Restorative approaches and trust in school police in an urban high school setting.
  • Jennifer Gerewitz (2016). Reward or punishment? An examination of two high schools' disciplinary practices.
  • Josh Korth (2016). Understanding implementation of restorative practices in low income, urban high schools. (won most outstanding dissertation at GSAPP).
  • Kathleen Clawson (2016). Restorative practices as preventive intervention to reduce gender discipline gaps in schools.
  • Clarissa Green (2017) Bridging the implementation gap in urban schools: Evaluating a coaching model to support high quality restorative circles.